Hearing and balance organ

Ear (Auris)

It is the organ in the anatomical structure that acts as a hearing function and holds the body of the balance. The ear (Auris) is examined in three sections.
  • External ear (Auris Externa)
  • Middle Ear (Auris Media)
  • Inner ear (Auris interna)
The structure of the ear
Figure 2.1: The structure of the ear

External ear (Auris Externa)

The outer ear (Auris externa) is composed of two parts, collecting sounds occurring in our environments and sending the middle ear.
  • Ear Bucket (Aurcula)
  • External auditory tract (meatus acuticus externa)
External ear
Image 2.2: Outer ear

Ear Bucket (Aurcula)

The ear cap is located on the back of the jaw joint on both sides of the head. Displays a funnel-shaped indentation and protrusions. Cartilage is made of tissue and covered with leather. The cartilage is connected to the structures around the structure with the ligaments and muscles. The outer ear path is connected with Fibrroz tissue.
The outer edge of the ear bucket is called helix. It starts from the cone and goes up front, then back and down to the ear nozzle. In front of the helicsin extending parallel to it, the ledge is called Antihelix. The remaining pit in front of Antihelicsin is called Concha Auriale. The sound waves are collected by the ear bucket and transferred to the outer ear path.

Ear Cap

External auditory tract (meatus acuticus externa)

The outer ear path that is entered into the inner part of the Temporal bone is similar to the letter “S”. The average length is 2.5-3 cm long. 1/3 outer part of the outer ear path in adult people consists of cartilage structure and 2/3 inside the bone. The skin in the outer ear path contains sebaceous glands and hairs.
The eardrum (Membbrana tympani) is found in the end of the outer ear path. It is a thin membrane in slightly oval form. The hairs on the outer ear path protect the eardrum from physical effects. There are special secretions of glands on the outer ear path. The secretion of the glands inside the canal and the dust that enters the ear are composed of earwax (Cerumen). The big ear kirine is called a bushon.

Middle Ear (Auris Media)

It is part of the Temporal bone that comes after the ear membrane. The inner surfaces of the middle ear are covered with mucous membranes and consist of air-containing gaps. These gaps include ear bones and muscles attached to them. The middle ear is divided into three parts.
  • Timpan Cavity (Cavitas tympanica)
  • Östaki pipe (tuba Auditiva)
  • Hearing Bones (Ossicula auditus)

The structure of the middle ear

Timpan Gap (Cavitas Tympanica)

The Tympan is located between the inner ear of the membrane and the inner surfaces are a narrow space covered with mucous membranes. The upper wall of the timpan cavity has six walls, the bottom wall, the front wall, the rear wall, the inner side wall, the exterior side wall.
The tympan membrane is an oval shaped membrane that forms the boundary between the outer ear and the middle ear. The middle of the membrane, which is very thin and tense, collapses inward. The inner side of the membrane consists of the mucous membranes and the outer side of the skin. The tympan membrane is sensitive to sound vibrations. Vibration occurs as soon as the sound waves hit the tympan membrane. These vibrations of the tympan membrane pass through the hearing bone.

Östaki pipe (Tuba auditiva)

It is located between the middle ear and the nasopharynks. 3.5-4cm long and the walls are covered with mucous membranes. The Östaki pipe contains cartilage and bone fragments.
The Östaki pipe ensures that the pressure between the outer ear and the middle ear is balanced. Normally closed pipe is opened with movements such as swallowing, stretching and chewing, and the pressure is equal. If there is a difference in pressure on both sides of the eardrum, there is a feeling of discomfort in the ears.

Hearing Bones (Ossicula auditus)

The Tympan gap is found between the Fensetra vestibular and the ossicles. Hearing bones consist of three bones, which are interconnected with low-play joints. The sound vibrations occurring in the tympan membrane of the hammer bone (Malleus) anvil bone (Fig) of the stirrup bone (stapes); The hammer is transmitted to the inner ear by the order of the anvil and stirrup ossicles.

Inner ear (Auris interna)

It’s found in the Temporal bone. The inner ear contains special sensory cells related to hearing and body balance. The hearing and balance functions are done here. There are many winding roads in the inner ear and the gaps between these roads are called Labyrinth (Labyrrinthus). It consists of two parts in terms of inner ear, structure and functions.
  • Bone Maze (Labyrinthus osseus)
  • Dice Maze (Labyrrinthus membraceus)
The structure of the inner ear
Figure 2.5: Structure of the inner ear

Bone Maze (Labyrinthus osseus)

Bone Maze, Dice maze wraps like capsules. It’s a hard structure made of bone. The inner ear (Auris interna) in the maze with the Bone maze is also found in the liquid called PERILENFA. The bone labyrinths lead to cochlea, the middle Vestibulum, and the back of the Canales semicirculares, which consist of three parts.
Cochlea: The middle ear is separated by an oval window. It’s like a snail’s crust. The cochlea carries hearing receptors.
Korti (Corti) organs bearing hearing receptors and consisting of silian cells are also found in cochlear.
Image 2.6: Cochlea

Vestibule (Vestibulum): An ovalish gap between the cochlea and half-circle mazes. In Vestibulum, the membrane of the maze is found in the structure of the balance of utriculus and Sacculcus.

Half Circle Canals (Canalis semicirculares): The half-circle channels are three in front, back and side. The shape is similar to the half circle. All of these channels open to Vestibuluma. Vestibule and ducts make a balancing device together. They detect the movements and balance of the body.

Membrane Labyrinth (Labyrrinthus membranaceus)

The bone consists of duct and pouches located inside the labyrinth. Between the maze of the dice and the Bone maze is the PERILENFA fluid, while the membrane is in the maze, there are liquids called ENDOGENFA. The membrane has two parts that detect the hearing and balance of the labyrinth:

The vestibular Labyrinth is the division of balance. There are a few fractions called utriculus, Sacculcus, Ductus semicircularis.
The Cochlear maze is the part about hearing. Located in Ductus cochlearis.

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